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The paper “ Approach of the Positioning and Learning Schools, History or Basis of Where the Schools Originate, Examples of Schools’ Applications” is a perfect example of a case study on management. The Positioning School examines the analytical process of strategy formation. It adopted most of the premises used in the planning and design schools as well as their key models, but the Positioning School concentrated more on the significance of strategies themselves rather than their process of formulation. A number of Scholars and Consultants have studied and prescribed critical strategies to organizations in terms of the contexts in which can work best.

This provides a clear explanation of how the Positioning School adopted the name Strategic Management. Today, it is relevant to argue that conferences have flourished, courses increased, more journals developed and consulting firms which are collectively referred to as ‘ strategy boutiques’ have expanded the strategy industry. The approach of the Positioning SchoolIt is notable that the Positioning School was developed from the ideas of the planning and design schools. However, the subtle differences increased the reorientation of the literature since the school was based on a simple and revolutionary idea.

Whereas the planning and design schools did not put limits on the kind of strategies that were appropriate for certain situations, the Positioning School emphasized the need to develop certain strategies as desirable positions within the economic marketplace of a given industry. It is important to note that such positions could be defended against competitors. This clearly indicates that firms that take such positions are strategically positioned to acquire higher profits compared to other firms within the same industry. Therefore, the Positioning School encourages firms to develop strategies that can enable them to be considered as a reservoir of resources to expand and consolidate strategic positions.

The accumulation of this logic across industries has made the Positioning School emphasize the development of basic strategies, for instance, product differentiation and the focused market scope that is commonly referred to as generic strategies. History or basis of where the Positioning School originatesThe origin of the Positioning School can be described based on the three different waves which include the early military literature, the essential consulting of the 1970s as well as the contemporary work on the empirical propositions.

The first wave provides the view that the Positioning School traces its origin in the military maxims. It has been argued that since the Positioning School accentuates on developing specific strategies that can be considered as tangible positions within the competitive contexts. The writings were codified to express the commonsense wisdom on the ideal conditions in which an enemy could be attached so as to defend the other entity’ s position. In a similar way the military writers did, today’ s business writers of the Positioning School are required to apply the tactics.

The military writers described important strategies prior to matching them to the ideal conditions. However, their work did not involve statistical data but concluded on the basis of imperative terms. In the second wave, it is quite clear that the Positioning school has been bespoken for the consultants. This means that they can arrive at a conclusion without necessarily having the business knowledge and analyze the data as well as juggle the generic strategies on a chart to provide a report.

Although the writers in this wave were systematic scholars of experience, their interpretations were narrow and focused more on marketing purposes. This suggests that the need for marketing share seemed the overriding imperative as it is reflected in the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) which focused on only two techniques of growth-share matrix and experience curve. The third and final wave involved systematic empirical investigation for the linkage between external conditions and the internal strategies as reflected in Porter’ s Competitive Strategy (Mintzberg et. al 89).

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