The paper “ Strategic Management - Four Criteria for Sustainable Advantages” is a fascinating example of a literature review on the management. Corporations identify and describe the strategies that their managers carry towards better performance and increase the competitive advantage for an organization. In turn, strategic management can be conceived as an array of decisions and actions taken by managers to decide the result of performance (Killen, Jugdev, Drouin & Petit 2012). Strategic management comprise of important tasks such as defining a strategy its features and components, management process, scanning the business environment, formulation of a strategy, implementation, continuous evaluation, decisions, developing business policy and use of matrix, analysis, models, strategic leadership as well as corporate governance towards the organizational objectives (Osterwalder & Pigneur 2013).
There are a number of firms that have had a competitive advantage despite the difficult economic contexts, confronting important rivals, the disappearance of economic boundaries and changing scenarios. Some of these organizations such as Google, Samsung, FedEx, Unilever, and Apple have had a global and long-term view in their areas of operations and used a certain way to analyze their reality and make pertinent decisions.
This essay will look at their international operations and focusing on how criteria for sustainable competitive advantage compared with their success. It will first incorporate various theories in strategic management before analyzing how various competitive advantages reflect or have been developed in these firms in their efforts to remain competitive in their respective areas of business. Theoretical ApproachesZheng, Yang & McLean (2010) defines a strategy as an attempt to define the goals, set objectives and provide means of achieving them. Various theories show the causality among various concepts.
Strategic management exists as a systematic approach to manage strategic change. Firms position themselves through planning strategy and identifying capabilities, ensure real-time response and issue management, systematic management of resistance in the implementation process. Aremu (2003) observes a strategy in terms of 5 P’ s- planning, patterns, positioning, perspective, and ploys. The plan is a conscious course of action, which is further broken into a sub-set of plans marking the real intention of the firm against its competitors, a term referred to as a ploy. The patterns are revealed as consistent processes and behaviors in line with the intended and unintended actions.
The position conjures an acceptable location in the environment that the firm operates. The business must note its market position. Perspective as the final aspect describes the action of looking inside the organization either through the SWOT analysis, the use of various matrices and realigning the organizational structure to serve the strategic purposes (Wheelen & Hunger 2011). According to Dubois & Gibbert (2010), the strategy is a business architecture that is structured from various management elements including a strategy, the organization, technologies, operations, and leadership.
In turn, congruence should be implemented in appropriate ways among all these elements in the business environment (Gebauer, Edvardsson, Gustafsson & Witell (2010). The strategy is developed alongside environment creation or adaptation to ensure that the strategies to be implemented are appropriate to the environment. Firms may mostly consider short-term profit, focus on various future possibilities and target different areas. Technology is an important business architecture in strategic management. Incorporations dealing with communications devices, electronics, and machine tools, they acquire a sustained competitive edge through technological innovation that leads to product architecture (Keupp, Palmié & Gassmann 2012).
A good example from the case study companies as Samsung and Apple. Cardeal & Antonio (2012) argue that the organization is a business architecture that leads to the realization of the strategies. Organizational design, network organizations with various stakeholders and joint ventures help build the game business. Unilever has set a good organization by merging with major national firms to form competitive markets like India through its Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL). Cardeal & Antonio (2012) observe that the operation is an important concept in business as firms have to adopt those operations that relate to its strategies, organizations, and technologies.
For instance, a good supply chain is promoted by ICT management like in the case of FedEx. FedEx build its core competencies through mapping operations and then integrated and exploited ICT (MBASkool. com 2015. Samsung and Google also implement their dispersed operations by ensuring real-time management and adapting its operations to a competitive environment.