Typical and non-typical forms of house foundation1.0 Background Construction can be defined as a process which consists of assembling and building of infrastructure in the field of civil engineering and architecture (TRB, 1990). Construction is a multi- process activity which passes various process involving different stages before a structure can be completed. Construction process is being managed by project manager and his assistants. In order for construction process to be successful, there is need for effective planning which must factor in environmental issues and impacts which surrounds the construction process as reported by TRB (1990).
There are several types of constructions which includes; Residential BuildingIndustrial constructionCommercial Building constructionHeavy Civil construction Building construction can be defined as the process through which architecture adds structures on a real property (MarcFalane, 1996). Initially, the architecture meets with the owner of the real property and then they discuss the kind of structure he or she needs. Secondly, it involves choosing the appropriate site for the construction before the design process begins. The client will help in the process of filling in the requirement form where the various specifications will be stated including the size, material specification and color.
The third phase of construction process involves the designing process. This involves schedules selection and set up where the constructor has to come up with the timetable and flow charts of various activities (MarcFalane, 1996). After the selection process, the specification sheet will be signed by both the client and the constructor. Project or construction manager is normally appointed to oversee the construction project process and a committee or a team is formed to oversee that process. In the process it is also very important to consider the relationship between the construction design work and the environment since to a greater extent the structure will have influence over environment in which it is erected in(TRB, 1990).
The initial stage of building construction is its foundation; this paper discusses foundation by giving its meaning in the construction terms, types of the foundations and concludes by giving the different between the different types of foundations. 2.0Foundations Foundation or basement of the house can be defined as the ground below the floor of apartment or building (MarcFalane, 1996).
The choice of building foundation depends on several factors which includes soil type of the site where the construction will take place. Poor soil requires deep foundation while soils which are good do not require deep foundation. Climatic condition of the construction site is another factor which determines the type of building foundation. Some types of foundations do not do well in flooding areas while some foundations perform extremely well in cold weather (MarcFalane, 1996). Foundation work in most cases are subcontracted due to the amount of work involve in putting it up.
There are majorly two types of house foundation; Non typical or historical foundations which includes; Earthfast constructionPadstone foundationStone foundationModern or typical foundation which includes; Shallow foundationDeep foundation Monopole foundationThe figure below gives example of foundation lay out2.1Non typical house foundationsHistorically, most buildings foundations have been made of wood in contact with the grounds, though, technically houses have no real foundation but the posts are dug deep into the ground. Pilling’s of the timber were by then used as a soft or wet grounds mostly on masonry walls or below stones.
In the bridge construction or in the marine construction both steel and timber beams were used with concrete’s.