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Management Operational, management is the process in which there is administering and coordinating resources efficiently with the main aim of achieving the set goals management should be effective and efficient. Contemporarily management involves ethics. Management theory involves the ability of the managers of a firm to lead the workers of the organizations (Howes 76). The leadership will involve coping up with the complexities and the changes which are more rapid and dynamic. The managers therefore need ethics in their management. An organization would include a group of people working for a similar goal.

The management process involves four main functions including planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Planning involves the setting of goals while organizing determines the task to be done. Controlling is mainly monitoring of the work done. The person or people that are involve in the activities are the managers. Leadership involves mainly directing and motivating the workers towards achieving the goals. The leadership skills needed in the management include conceptual, human and technical skills (Howes 106). Managers are in different stages with different tasks. The management starts from top managers, middle managers, first line managers and operational employees.

Management needs structural, customer and human capital. Quantitative perspective of management involves four main characteristics including decision making focus, development of measurable criteria, formulation of quantitative model and the use of computers. System perspective of management is the approach that aims at problem solving with environmental interaction, synergy and entropy. Management also has contingency perspective approach which proposes that there is no best approach to management and makes the managers identify the most effective approach for a given situation.

Contingency approaches also includes Fiedler’s contingency model which is design to diagnose task orientation in leadership (Howes 24). Situational theory by Hersey and Blanchard focuses on the characteristics of followers as the most important in the situation of determining effective leadership. Path-goal theory is in contingency approach in which leadership responsibility is to increase motivation of the workers for task accomplishment and rewards. The decision styles include to decide, consult individual, consult group, facilitate and then delegate.

Participation models in management include Vroom and Jago models. Groupthink and brainstorming effects management. Management planning involves outlining the activities that aims at the goals of the organization. Planning mainly aims at ensuring that the organization is both effective and efficient in the activities it undertakes. It also enables better coordination and focus on forward thinking. Planning as a linking mechanism rotates through goals, plans and control. The costs that are involved in planning entails management time and delay in the decision making (Howes 90).

Analysis done in organizations deals with the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Setting strategic goals should be SMART, specific, measurable, achievable, result oriented and timeline. Strategic alternatives are development considering SWOT analysis in an organization. Grand strategies deals with stability, retrenchment and growth. Missions by an organization reflects the fundamental reasons for existence. All the planning approaches have advantages from top planning where the managers have the knowledge to bottom planning were the people in the operational activities are involved.

Functional strategy planning deals with production, research and development, finance, human resource management and marketing. Reference Howes, Norman R. Modern Project Management Successfully Integrating Project Management Knowledge Areas and Processes. New York: AMACOM, 2001. Print.

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