Essays on The Relationship Between Cooperative Conflict Management and Service Innovation Literature review

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The paper "The Relationship Between Cooperative Conflict Management and Service Innovation" is a good example of a literature review on management. The term community of service is both durable and capable of holding many levels of meaning; the meaning of the term has changed from early exploratory works, to more theoretical to the current use in business (Kimble, 2005). The ambiguity of the terms community and practice allows the concept of CoP to be reappropriated for different academic and practical purposes (Cox, 2005). Lave and Wenger (1991) argued that the use of the term ‘ community’ in CoP means participation in an activity system in which participants have a common understanding, a community in this context, therefore, does not necessarily imply co-presence or an identifiable group with socially identifiable boundaries, rather it is a group recognized by participating in a common activity about which they share understanding and they also agree on what their participation in the activity means for themselves and their communities.

Lave and Wenger’ s definition shows that the purpose of communities of practice is to reproduce existing knowledge through apprenticeship and therefore a CoP in their definition comprises apprentices and masters.

This definition is echoed by Gherardi, Nicolini, and Odela (1998) who argue that a CoP is not the existence of a different informal grouping within the organization. Rather it is a way of emphasizing that all practices are dependent on social practices and that they (the practices) are perpetuated through such social practices and that learning takes place through engagement in the social practices. According to Brown & Duguid (1991), the internal structure of a Community of Practice is egalitarian; this proposition is opposed to Lave & Wenger (1991) who argue for a master-apprentice relationship within CoPs.

Brown & Duguid argue that the functions of these communities are to generate ideas on how to solve novel problems they state that these CoPs should be fostered by organizations as informal networks which will help in COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE AND INNOVATION figuring out how to get the job done. Wenger (1998) supplies the first clear definition of a community of practice as ‘ a group that adheres through mutual engagement on an appropriated enterprise and creating a common repertoire’ Wenger’ s indicators of CoP include sustained mutual relationships; whether harmonious or conflictual, shared ways of engaging in doing things together, rapid flow of information and propagation of innovation.

The indicators also include quick setups of problems that need discussing as well as mutually defining identities (Wenger, 1998). Wenger, McDermott & Snyder (2002), defined a community of practice as a group of people sharing a concern and having common problems and passion about a topic. They further argue that communities of practice deepen the knowledge and expertise of members in their areas of interest by giving them an opportunity to interact on an ongoing basis.

According to Contu & Willmott, (2003) the Wenger, McDermott & Snyder, 2002 definition is more about performance rather than about analysis of the concept. The definition is a shift from Wenger’ s earlier writings; this shift also means a change in perspective to now focus on the popularization of the concept of a community of practice as a management tool. Hildreth, Kimble, and Wright (2000), define a community of practice as a group of professionals bound to each other informally through exposure to a common problem and pursuit of solutions for the said problems together.

Due to the nature of their relationship and interests, they embody a store of knowledge.

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