The paper "Purchasing Decisions of the Consumers " is a great example of marketing coursework. The purchasing decisions of the consumers have usually affected factors that are outside their personal control, these factors also have both direct and indirect impacts on how the consumers consume products and live y. The consumers of any other products are faced with many external factors that affect they include, personal culture, household structure, and the groups that he or she associates with. The marketers and owners of successful businesses cal these external factors since their impact majorly come from the outside rather than the inside.
At the moment, with the growing stiff competition in the market, companies face strong competition. This is the reason the managers of these companies need clearly to understand the behavior of consumers in order to ensure that the business is competitive, although, both the internal and external factors work together in unison in assisting the consumer in the decision making process. Input variables The input variables are consumer decision making is the stimuli within the environment, these variables take informative cues of the product that include quality, price, distinctiveness and their availability.
The informative cue can either be significative social or symbolic stimuli. The information concerning the brand or the product that is provided by the marketer has the components that are significative. They mostly deal with the characteristics of the brand. The symbolic stimuli are basically psychological that the buyer has on the product; it is both figurative and perceptual. Social stimuli are information that comes from the social environment such as groups, societies and families. Output variables Output variables are the actions of the buyer in the response to the stimulus inputs; the output response refers to components such as comprehension, intention, attention, attitude, and purchase.
These components can be arranged in a hierarchical manner starting from attention and finally ends with a purchase. Consumer attitudesThis can also be referred to as the development of attitude and change. An approach is known in predisposition to act in either a favorable manner or unfavorable manner depending on a given object (Monahan, 2000). The attitude towards a particular object was known broadly to include the specific consumption of products and the concepts that directly relate to marketing.
The attitudes that are relevant to the behavior that reflects and happen within are totally affected by the situation (Nightingale, 2008). The structural approach models consist of the tricomponent model of approach, the design that has many attributes, including the trying to consume design and the approach learning the advertising models. Tricomponent models have three imperative components which are the cognitive part, this involves the knowledge and perception that an individual acquires by a combination of the experiences with the attitude object, and it is also directly related to the information that is gathered from many sources (Monahan, 2000).
The effective part is another; this involves the emotions that a consumer has towards a particular product or brand. A cognitive component is the last part; this shows the likelihood or the actual tendency that an individual will take a particular action in regard to his or her attitude towards the product (Nightingale, 2008). The model that has many attributes shows the attitude of the consumers towards an attitude object just as a function of the understanding and assessment of the consumer’ s important attributes and beliefs that are held about a set n particular attitude object.
The four importance model directly relates to the attitude-object-model, the approach that is invested towards the performance model, the theory of the reasoned-action model and finally the theory involving planned characters(Monahan, 2000). The approach reflecting towards the object model shows that the attitude towards the product or the particular brand is just a function of either the absence or the presence of and the evaluation of some particular product and the specific beliefs or characteristics (Batley & Daly, 2006).
The attitude towards the behavioral model deals with capturing of the personal approach on acting or behaving towards an object and not the attitude towards the object itself. The theory concerning the reasoned action shows an integration of the attitudes towards the object (Gardner & Steinberg, 2005). The theory concerning the reasoned action shows an integration of the components of attitude into the structure that directs to a batter explanation and directly predicts the performance.
Armstrong, J. S. (1991). "Prediction of Consumer Behavior by Experts and Novices." Journal of Consumer Research (Journal of Consumer Research Inc.) 18, 251–256
Batley, R., & Daly, A. (2006). "On the equivalence between elimination-by-aspects and generalized extreme value models of choice behavior." Journal of Mathematical Psychology 50 (5), 456–467.
Belch G. a. (2007). Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective, Seventh Edition, 89-987.
Blackhart, G. C., & Kline, J. P. (2005). "Individual differences in anterior EEG asymmetry between high and low defensive individuals during a rumination/distraction task." Personality and Individual Differences 39 (2), 427–437.
Daniel Kahneman, A. T. (2000). Choice, Values, Frames. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Deaton, A., & Muellbauer, J. (1980). Economics and consumer behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Drake, R. A. (1993). Processing persuasive arguments: 2. Discounting of truth and relevance as a function of agreement and manipulated activation asymmetry." Journal of Research in Personality 27 (2), 184–196.
Engel, J. F. (1968). Consumer Behavior. Consumer Behavior, 1st ed., 1-98.
Gardner, M. &. & Steinberg, L. (2005). "Peer Influences on Risk Taking, Risk Preference, and Risky Decision Making in Adolescence and Adulthood: An Experimental Study." Developmental Psychology, vol. 41 no. 4, 67-89.
Hall, C. A. (2011). The illusion of knowledge: When more information reduces accuracy and increases confidence. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 103, 277-290.
Hirsh, J. B. (2012). Personalized persuasion: Tailoring persuasive appeals to recipient personality traits. Psychological Science, 23, 578-581.
Howard, J. S. (1968). Theory of Buyer Behavior. New York: J. Wiley & Sons.
Kholo, S. (2010). "Consumer psychology: The essence of Marketing." International Journal of Educational Administration 2 (2), 220–420.
Kuester, S. (2012). MKT 301: Strategic Marketing & Marketing in Specific Industry Contexts, Mannheim: the University of Mannheim.
Laermer, R., & Simmons, M. (2007). Punk Marketing, New York: Harper Collins publishers.
Monahan, G. (2000). Management Decision was Making. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nightingale, J. (2008). Think Smart - Act Smart: Avoiding The Business Mistakes That Even Intelligent People Make. John Wiley & Sons journal, 1-78.
Postmes, T., Spears, R., & Cihangir, S. (2001). "Quality of decision making and group norms." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80 (6), 918–930.
Shell, E. R. (2009). Cheap: The High Cost of Discount Culture. New York: Penguin Press.
Triantaphyllou, E. (2007). Multi-Criteria Decision Making: A Comparative Study journal, 78-789.